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Monday, October 22nd 2012, 3:39 PM EDT
Typical Industrial Infrared Heater ( F J Evans Engineering Co)

Millions of hours of commercial tests have scorched the cornerstone of global warming science: the disputed greenhouse gas effect. Hidden in plain sight for years has sat irrefutable evidence from heating manufacturers to prove that infrared radiation does not heat the air. Is this a big deal? You bet. It means that only in the fantasy world of climatologists’ computer models can man-made global warming still exist. Below Carl Brehmer is first to go public with this compelling new analysis. Read more below

(Guest Post by Carl Brehmer)

“If the colder object is warmed, then this reduces the flow of heat from the hotter body. If the Atmosphere is warmed, it reduces the flow of heat from the Ocean.”

This is Newton’s Law of Cooling, which states “The rate of heat loss of a body is proportional to the difference in temperatures between the body and its surroundings.”

It is the law of physics that defines heat flow between to bodies of matter in physical contact, i.e., the atmosphere and the Earth’s surface/ocean. This is the equation:

T2 = T0 + (T1 – T0) * e(-k * Δt)
where:
T2: Final Temperature
T1: Initial Temperature
T0: Constant Temperature of the surroundings
Δt: Time difference of T2 and T1
k: Constant to be found

(Finding k–the constant–requires further calculations none of which have anything to do with IR radiation, net, total or otherwise.)

The “greenhouse effect” hypothesis attempts to define the heat flow between the Earth’s surface/ocean and the atmosphere using the Stefan-Boltzmann Radiation Law and accompanying formulae, which requires something that is absent. The radiating surfaces of the two bodies of matter need to be separated from one another, ideally by a vacuum. The bottom “surface” of the atmosphere, if you will, is in direct contact with the surface/ocean which makes Newton’s Law of Cooling the operative law.

Is it not axiomatic in science that if you cannot get the right answer if you use the wrong formula. You wouldn’t, for example, attempt to figure out the volume of a sphere by using the formula that calculates how fast it would fall 10 feet in a vacuum.

That then leaves us with the question of whether or not one can heat air with IR radiation. If so than this would affect the rate of heat transfer from the ground to the atmosphere via Newton’s Law of Cooling.

Rather than speculating on this question let’s take a look at what both scientific experimentation and what millions of hours of residential IR heating has shown. First we will look at the work of John Tyndall, a 19th century physicist, who did some extensive laboratory testing on the ability of various gases to block the transmission of Infrared radiation, which he called “calorific rays.” He tested gases at concentrations of 80,000 ppm, which for carbon dioxide is about 200 times the current atmospheric concentration. Even at that high level Tyndall concluded:

“Carbonic acid gas is one of the feeblest of absorbers of the radiant heat emitted by solid sources. It is, for example, extremely transparent to the rays emitted by the heated copper plate already referred to.” [2]

He also noted that at atmospheric concentrations carbon dioxide had no affect on the temperature of the air regardless of how much IR radiation was passed through it. He said:

“Through air . . . the waves of ether pass without absorption, and these gases are not sensibly changed in temperature by the most powerful calorific rays.”

In spite of these observations Svante August Arrhenius (1859 – 1927) thirty years later speculated that carbon dioxide actually increases the temperature of the ground (not via Newton’s Law of Cooling but rather through the Stefan-Boltzmann Radiation Law.)

To test Arrhenius’ hypothesis in 1900 a Swedish physicist Knut Ångström (1857 – 1910) performed an experiment and published his findings in a paper entitled “On The Importance Of Water Vapor And Carbon Dioxide In The Absorption Of The Atmosphere.”

Ångström’s experiment was to fill a tube with the amount of carbon dioxide that would be present in a column of air reaching to the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and then running infrared radiation through it. He first doubled and then halved that amount and repeated the test, which demonstrated virtually no temperature change between these differing amounts of carbon dioxide.

These experimental observations have since been confirmed through millions of hours of the commercial application of infrared heating. Here is what a few retailers of infrared heaters assert:

“Infrared energy travels at the speed of light without heating the air it passes through, the amount of infrared radiation absorbed by carbon dioxide, water vapor and other particles in the air typically is negligible.”

“Infrared heating technology by definition does not heat up the air, instead it targets the objects leaving the Oxygen and humidity intact.”

“These infrared rays pass through the air in the room and start heating any object they hit. These rays, however, do not heat the air of the room or area, making it more comfortable for you.”
[1]

So, what we have is both experimental data and real world commercial application data that demonstrates IR radiation does not heat air. Why? Because it has been known since the 19th century that gases that absorb IR radiation also emit IR radiation. John Tyndall also said:

“By this mode of experiment it was proved that the self-same molecular arrangement which renders a gas a powerful absorber, renders it in the same degree a powerful radiator—that the atom or molecule which is competent to intercept the calorific waves is in the same degree, competent to generate them. Thus, while the atoms of elementary gases proved themselves unable to emit any sensible amount of radiant heat, the molecules of compound gases were shown to be capable of powerfully disturbing the surrounding ether.”

So, increasing the concentration of IR emissive gases in the atmosphere increases the emissivity of the atmosphere. The Stefan-Boltzmann Radiation Law does define the atmosphere’s thermal relationship to outer space and part of that formula is the inclusion of an emissivity number. It has long been known that a higher emissivity number allows matter to emit the same amount of IR radiation at a lower temperature. The “greenhouse effect” hypothesis for some reason suggests that increasing the emissivity of the atmosphere by adding GHGs to it will have the opposite affect and require the atmosphere to become warmer in order to emit the same amount of IR radiation out into space.

Can you not understand why some people might be skeptical of a scientific hypothesis that 1) uses the wrong law of physics to define the thermal relationship that exists between the atmosphere and the earth’s surface/ocean and 2) then reverses the Stefan-Boltzmann Radiation Law in its definition of the atmosphere’s thermal relationship to outer space?

[1] http://www.infraredheaters.com/basic.html (accessed online: October 22, 2012)

[2] TYNDALL J., Fragments of Science: A Series of Detached Essays, Addresses and Reviews,’ (1879), www.gutenberg.org (accessed online: October 22, 2012)

Posted by Len Srigley (Twitter) on Oct 22nd 2012, 8:57 PM EDT
Like the heat lamps in hotel bathrooms. From http://www.homedoctor.net/home-decor/lighting/heat-lamps

Heat lamps do not produce much visible light and they do not heat up the air, but rather warm surfaces like the skin, yielding a touch much like that of the sun. The lamp's large filament operates at a much lower temperature than a normal bulb. You cannot see this infrared light, but you can certainly feel it.
Posted by Will Pratt (Twitter) on Oct 23rd 2012, 4:21 AM EDT
These lamps use just one of the three modes of heat transfer, i.e. radiation. They still heat the air just as they heat all substances. They just do so by radiation.

Without the other two modes of heat transfer, convection and conduction, they are inefficient at heating air because air has low mass and is a free flowing/convecting fluid, which means it acts as a coolant. Yet they do heat air none the less. It just feels like they do not because the heated air molecules, immediately convect and are quickly replaced with cooler air molecules.

Line a small cupboard with tinfoil, insert lamp and close the door. The cupboard will heat top down as the warm air convects upwards and cannot escape to be replaced by cooler air.
Posted by cedarhill (forum) on Oct 23rd 2012, 6:25 AM EDT
Will @ Oct 23rd 2012, 4:21 AM EDT.
I think you need to have a discussion with Ångström. This article just states CO2 is useless as a radiator. That's why you don't see liquid CO2 in AC units or CO2 driven house heating systems similar to those hot water radiators. If you build any and test it could you report the results here?

Comment edited by cedarhill (forum) on Tuesday October 23, 2012 at 6:25 AM EDT
Posted by Will Pratt (Twitter) on Oct 23rd 2012, 7:52 AM EDT
cedarhill (forum) on Oct 23rd 2012, 6:25 AM EDT

Perhaps you should run the cupboard experiment and let us know if the heater does not in-fact warm the enclosure.

I believe you will be rather disappointed or perhaps surprised, at the results.

I think you should also check out one of John O'Sullivan's previous 'articles' to get some perspective on his level of consistency.

Here: http://climaterealists.com/?id=10321

Quote:

"Dick Topping Director of Appliance Research (TIAX, LLC) writes: “The use of CO2 as a refrigerant dates back more than a century, but it fell out of favor in the air-conditioning and refrigeration industry with the development of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in the 1930s. Shortly thereafter, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) such as HCFC-22 were developed, and HCFC-22 eventually became the primary refrigerant for stationary air-conditioning systems. However, when concerns about the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer emerged in the 1970s, national and international agreements were enacted to phase out CFCs and HCFCs.” [2.]"

For the record, I have always maintained, as John O'Sullivan knows well enough, that all atmospheric gases are heated directly by incoming electromagnetic radiation.