View Article

view the latest news articles
New "Jelly Pump" Rewrites Carbon Cycle by Doug L Hoffman
Thursday, June 4th 2009, 5:32 PM EDT
Co2sceptic (Site Admin)
Image AttachmentOne of the fundamental aspects of Earth's ecological and climate systems is the way carbon moves through the biosphere. From land to air to water, through living organisms and even the plant's crust, carbon—the stuff of life—is always on the move. Scientists thought they had a pretty good understanding of how the carbon cycle works, until now. Recent work with strange, jellyfish like creatures called thaliaceans is causing scientists to re-evaluate the workings of the carbon cycle.

There are three orders of Thaliacea: Pyrosomida, Doliolida, and Salpida. An example of a thaliacean species is Thalia democratica, more commonly known as salps. Although salps appear similar to jellyfish because of the simple form of their bodies and their free-floating way of life, they are structurally most closely related to vertebrates, animals with true backbones. Salps are related to the pelagic tunicate groups, as well as to other bottom-living (benthic) tunicates.
Salps appear to have a form preliminary to vertebrates, and are used as a starting point in models of how vertebrates evolved. Scientists speculate that the tiny groups of nerves in salps are one of the first instances of a primitive nervous system, which eventually evolved into the more complex central nervous systems of vertebrates. Studies on salp brains have been done by Thurston Lacalli and Linda Holland and published in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, but not much is known about what happens to animals with gelatinous bodies, whether thaliaceans or jellyfish, after they die.

Image Attachment

It has been known for some time that salps and other thaliaceans assimilate CO2 and, when they die, take that carbon with them as they drift towards the bottom of the oceans. Most marine biologists thought that the dead salps simply became nutriment for other creatures. Then, in 2006, Mario Lebrato and Daniel Jones of the National Oceanography Centre in Southampton, England, made a surprising discovery off the cost of Côte d’Ivoire in Africa—a thaliacean graveyard.

According to a report in the Economist, the researchers were using a remotely operated deep-sea vehicle to study the sea floor near an oil pipeline when they happened upon the graveyard, but they immediately recognized the possible importance of their discovery. The existence of such large deposits of thaliacean corpses calls into question accepted thinking about one important aspect of climate change: how much carbon from the atmosphere ends up at the bottom of the sea? If thaliaceans are falling to the bottom of the sea in large numbers, they might be taking a lot of carbon with them.

As we explained in The Resilient Earth, there are two large pools of terrestrial carbon; geologic carbon stored in rock and fossil fuel deposits, and biologic carbon stored in living things or “in play” in the atmosphere and oceans. The source of both types of stored carbon is life. Over billions of years, uncountable billions of living things have collected carbon; growing, eating, breathing, reproducing and finally, dying. Most of this carbon came from Earth's primitive atmosphere in the form of carbon dioxide, which has steadily decreased over time.

Through a number of different biological and physical processes, carbon is circulated through Earth's biosphere and lithosphere. Vast amounts of carbon are now trapped in Earth's crust in the form of sedimentary rocks; limestone, dolomite, and chalk. This type of storage, or sink, accounts for the majority of carbon on Earth, 66,000,000 to 100,000,000 billion metric tons (gigatons or Gt).

SinkAmount in Billions of Metric Tons (Gt)
Atmosphere 578 (as of 1700) - 766 (as of 1999)
Ocean 38,000 to 40,000
Terrestrial Plants 540 to 610
Soil Organic Matter 1500 to 1600
Marine Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks66,000,000 to 100,000,000
Fossil Fuel Deposits 4000
Amount of carbon stored in sinks. Source Dr. Michael Pidwirny

As seen in the table above, fossil fuel deposits, the other major type of geologic carbon, accounts for a paltry 4,000 Gt. The important difference between geologic and biologic carbon sinks is that geologic carbon is out of short term circulation. It is only released by slow processes, such as volcanism, degassing, and rock weathering, which can take millions of years. At least that was true before Man started digging up fossil fuels and burning them.

The other carbon sinks shown—the oceans, soil, atmosphere, and plants—all participate in what is called the carbon cycle of life, shown in the diagram below. This carbon is involved with life over the short term. It is the build-up of this carbon, in the form of CO2 in the atmosphere, that is responsible for the current global warming scare.

Image Attachment

What is not clearly shown in the carbon cycle diagram are the geologic carbon sinks that store carbon for long periods of time. Carbon in these sinks take millions of years to cycle back into the biosphere. As mentioned, there is a tremendous amount of CO2 dissolved in the oceans. Though some of the CO2 in seawater remains as dissolved gas, a large portion is converted into other chemical compounds.

Among the compounds that are formed are carbonate (CO3) and bicarbonate (HCO3). Many forms of sea life (labeled Aquatic Biomass) have the ability to modify bicarbonate by adding calcium (Ca), producing calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Calcium carbonate is used by these organisms to build shells and other body parts. The illustration below shows how carbon cycles through the oceans and sedimentary rock deposits.

Image Attachment

The ocean gets a disproportionate share of the carbon dioxide available to the ocean-atmosphere system. For every molecule of CO2 in the atmosphere there are about 50 CO2 molecules in the ocean. Why is this so? The main reason is that carbon dioxide readily reacts with water to make soluble ions, rather than simply diffusing gas molecules among the water molecules. There are a number of physical and biological mechanisms that “pump” CO2 about the ocean-atmosphere system. One is the physical pump: cold water holds more carbon dioxide in solution than warm water and because cold water is denser than warm water, this cold, carbon dioxide-rich water is pumped down by vertical mixing to lower depths.

Other reasons for the ocean’s big share of carbon are its “biological pumps.” The biological pumps, based on the life-cycles of various marine creatures, remove carbon dioxide from the surface water of the ocean, changing it into living matter and carrying it to the deeper water layers. When the ocean shares carbon dioxide with the atmosphere, it does so by not only simply taking on carbon dioxide into solution but also by incorporating the carbon dioxide into living organisms.

Image Attachment

Carbon is constantly cycling between the atmosphere, the oceans, and living matter. Thaliaceans, jellyfish and other gelatinous animals roll in this process has largely been ignored by researchers because their bodies were thought to consist mostly of water with relatively little carbon content. However, as Lebrato and Jones report in Limnology and Oceanography, their analysis of thaliacean tissues revealed that the creatures were one-third carbon by weight—much more than expected. Jellyfish, by comparison, are 10% carbon, and single-celled algae around 20%. The high carbon content explains why thaliaceans are so dense and why they sink so quickly after they die. The key question regarding the dead thaliaceans is, when they get to the bottom does their carbon stay there? If so, thaliaceans may form a previously unsuspected CO2 pump—a “jelly pump.”

One way carbon stays on the seabed is in the form of calcium carbonate, the main ingredient of most animal shells. Uncountable numbers of tiny diatoms, raining down on the ocean floor over millions of years have created the vast deposits of chalk and limestone found within Earth's strata. But thaliaceans have no shells and no one is sure what a deep bed of dead salps turns into. Some thaliaceans do get buried before they have completely decomposed, and researchers have found evidence that dead jellyfish can also accumulate in trenches without much decomposition.

Why all this fuss about mostly transparent sea creatures that seem rather insubstantial? Because they gather around the world in feeding swarms, billions strong, feasting on algae, the amount of carbon thaliaceans are potentially taking to the bottom of the sea is by no means trivial. According to Lebrato, it is difficult to make accurate estimations because the research is still in its infancy. But he estimates that the “jelly pump” sinks almost twice as much carbon as algae do.

Image Attachment

Even if the carbon is not permanently buried, the lack of mixing between deep and shallow water layers in the ocean means that it is likely to stay out of circulation for quite some time. Of course, some of the recent revelations about the deep ocean return flows may change that conclusion. Either way, these are new factors that will have to be added to the GCM computer models used to predict future climate changes. Just like the thermohaline circulation, the carbon cycle we thought we knew so well has just changed in some fundamental ways. As a consequence, Earth's climate system has become even more complicated and environmental models previously concocted are shown to be wanting.

That is the way science works, new discoveries are made every day and what we thought we knew yesterday doesn't look so certain today. Every generation of scientists has its own long held, but erroneous theories to correct: Ptolemy's model of the solar system, fixed continents, any number of theories regarding the nature of matter, all have been accepted dogma and eventually discarded. New research is constantly changing the ideas that buttressed anthropogenic global warming, eroding its foundations like the tide excavates sand around a piling. How much longer before we move on to a more correct view of Earth's climate system? Look around, the change is happening right now.

Be safe, enjoy the interglacial and stay skeptical.
Source Link: theresilientearth.com

Show #11-20

Arctic Snap Feed
  • » Feed Error
Current Poll
» How much "Man Made" CO2 Is In The Earth's Atmosphere?
  • I think ALL of the CO2 in the Earth's Atmosphere is from man.
    graph bar 0 1%
  • I'm not sure how much "Man Made" CO2 is in the Earth's Atmosphere.
    graph bar 1 13%
  • There is .04% CO2 in the Earth's Atmosphere and of that "Man" has added an extra 4% (1 part in 62,500)
    graph bar 2 86%

you have already voted

Articles by Climate Realists and Topics

» Recently used highlighted

ALL #-E F-J K-O P-T U-Z
10:10 No Pressure
2010 Forecast
2011 Forecast
2012 Forecast
2012 USA Election
2013 Forecast
24 Hours of Reality
28Gate
A Chart to Debunk AGW
A Graph to Debunk AGW
A Moment Of Clarity
Acidic Oceans
Adam Yoshida
Adrian MacNair
Adrian Sach (Donation)
Advert
AfricaGate
African Drought
Ahmed Boucenna
Al Ritter
Alan Broone
Alan Carlin
Alan Caruba
Alan Cochrane
Alan Jones
Alan Moran
Alan Nicholl
Alan Siddons
Alan Smith (Donation)
Alan Tenczar (Donation)
Alan Tichmarsh
Alberta Election 2012
Alberto Miatello
Alec Evans (Donation)
Alec Pearson (Donation)
Alex Epstein
Alex Jones
Alex Newman
Allan Macrae
Allen Quist
Alok Mukherjee
Amanda Baillieu
Amazon Rain Forests
AmazonGate
American Meteorological Society
Amy Ridenour
An Inconvenient Truth
Andre Bijkerk
Andrew Bevan (Donation)
Andrew Bolt
Andrew Duncan (Donation)
Andrew J. Hoffman
Andrew Kenny
Andrew McKillop
Andrew Montford
Andrew Neil
Andrew Orlowski
Ann McElhinney
Ann Widdecombe
Anna Sanclement
Anthony Bright-Paul
Anthony Cox
Anthony G. Martin
Anthony J. Sadar
Anthony Watts
Anton Evseyev
Anton Yevseev
Antonio Mario Lorusso (Donation)
Arcady Tishkov
ArcticSnap.Com
Arno Arrak
Art Horn
Arthur Rorsch
Arthur Wiegenfeld
Arvid Pasto
Astrophysics v Meteorology
AtlasGate
Aubrey Vaughan
Audio
Augusto Mangini
Barrington Davey (Donation)
Barry Brill
Barry Cooper
Barry Napier
Barry Schwartz
Barry Woods
Barun S. Mitra
BBC
BBC Review
Ben Fordham
Ben Pile
Benny Peiser
Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature (BEST) Project
Berthold Klein
Betting
Beverly K. Eakman
Bill Board
Bill DiPuccio
Bill Frezza
Bill McKibben
Bill Stratton
Bjarne Andresen
Bjorn Lomborg
Blast From the Past
Bo Christiansen
Bob Ashworth
Bob Berman
Bob Carter
Bob Ellis
Bob Godfrey
Bob Lutz
Bob Tisdale
Bob Webster
Book
Boris Johnson
Brainwashing
Brendan O'Neill
Brent Bozell
Bret Stephens
Brian McNair
Brian Sussman
Brice Bosnich
Bring It On
Bruce Thompson
Bryan Fischer
Bryan Leyland
Burger King Sign
Buzz Aldrin
By Jove I Think They've Nearly Got It
C. R. de Freitas
Calem Smith
Cameron English
Campaign Against Climate Change
CampusReform.org
Carbon Trading
Carey Roberts
Carl Brehmer
Carrington 2012
Cartoon
Cathy Taibbi
Catlin Arctic Survey
Cause & Effect
Censorship
CERN
CFACT
Charles Anderson
Charles Booker (Donation)
Charles Memminger
Charles O'Connor (Donation)
Chip Knappenberger
Chris de Freitas
Chris Smith
Chriss W. Street
Christian Gerondeau
Christmas Donation
Christopher Booker
Christopher C. Horner
Christopher Chantrill
Christopher Essex
Christopher Jones (Donation)
Christopher Pearson
Chuck Rogér
Claes Johnson
Claude Allègre
Claude Sandroff
Cliff OLLIER
Climate Cognitive Dissonance
Climate Fools Day
Climate of Doubt
Climate Protest
Climate Reality Project
ClimateGate
ClimateRapidResponse.org
ClimateRealists.Com
climaterealists.org.nz
ClimateWiki.org
Climatic Research Unit
Clive James
Clouds
CO2 Experiment
CO2 Is Green
CO2 Level
CO2 Propaganda
Coldest Journey On Earth
Combustible
Comet C/2013 A1
Comment
Comment On Article
Conrad Black
conservation
CONVOY OF NO CONFIDENCE
COP18
Copenhagen Conference
Countryside Party
CowGate
Craig Idso
Craig Rucker
Crop Yield
Daily Quake
Dan Miller
Dan Pangburn
Daniel Compton
Daniel Croak (Donation)
Daniel Greenfield
Daniel Hannan
Daniel Henninger
Daniel M. Sweger
Danielle Smith
Daren Jonescu
Darren Pope
Darren Samuelsohn
Dave Clewlow (Donation)
Dave Dahl
Dave Epstein
Dave Hatter
David Appell
David Archibald
David Becker (Donation)
David Bellamy
David Bennett (Donation)
David Bredenkamp
David Brockless (Donation)
David Brook (Donation)
David Child
David Deming
David Dick
David E. Sumner
David Evans
David Garner (Donation)
David H. Douglass
David Hanna (Donation)
David Hathaway
David Henderson
David Howse (Donation)
David Icke
David Ivory
David Klenk (Donation)
David Lappi
David Legates
David Lungren
David R. Legates
David Rose
David Schnare
David Smith (Donation)
David Spady
David Spiegelhalter
David Whitehouse
Dean Grubbs
Death Threats
Debra J. Saunders
Delayed
Denis Ables
Denis Rancourt
Dennis Ambler
Dennis Boothby
Dennis Byrne
Dennis T. Avery
Derek Alker
Deroy Murdock
Des Moore
Dexter Wright
Diana Allan (Donation)
Dick Warburton
Dominic Lawson
Dominik Jung
Don Blankenship
Don Easterbrook
Don Parkes
Don Petersen
Don Pierce (Donation)
Don Surber
Donald Trump
Donald Williams (Donation)
Donna Laframboise
Doreen Alli Linder
Doug L. Hoffman
Doug Wyatt
Douglas Cohen
Douglas Cotton
Douglas J. Keenan
Duggan Flanakin
Duncan Davidson
E. Calvin Beisner
Earthquake Research
Earthquakes (>=7.5) 2012
Earthquakes (>=7.5) 2013
Earthquakes (>=7) 2012
Earthquakes (>=7) 2013
Ed Berry
Ed Caryl
Ed Hiserodt
Ed Hoskins
Ed West
Editorial
Education
Edward Barnes
Edward F Blick
Edward Lane
Edward Moran
Edward R. Long
Edward Wimberley
Edwin X Berry
Elisa Pardo
Elizabeth Auld (Donation)
Email
Emily Oster
Energy & Fuel
EnergyGate
Environmentalism
Erik Kempers (Donation)
Erik Wemple
Erl Happ
Ernst Georg Beck
Exclusive
F. Swemson
Facebook
FakeGate
Falling Birds
Fan Page
FAQ
Ferenc Miskolczi
Film & TV
Financial
Finis Gillespie (Donation)
Fire James Hansen
FloodGate
Floor Anthoni
Food
Forrest Mims III
Fortunato F Condo (Donation)
Forum
Frank Davis
Frank J. Tamel
Frank J. Tipler
Frank Lansner
Frank Sherosky
Fraser Nelson
Fred Dardick
Fred Singer
Frederick Forsyth
Freeman Dyson
Fritz Vahrenholt
Front Page News
Frozen Al Gore
Funding
Gai Lehn (Donation)
Garrett Bastardi
Garth Paltridge
Gary DeBois (Donation)
Gary Novak
Gary Sutton
Gary Thompson
Gary Williams (Donation)
Gavin Cooke
Gayam Walter (Donation)
Geert Groot Koerkamp
Geoff Sharp
Geoffrey Lean
Geoffrey Lehmann
Geoffrey Temple (Donation)
Geological Society of America (GSA)
George Carlin
George Christensen
George Gardner (Donation)
George Giles
George Jonas
George Kukla
George Pell
George Will
Gerald T. Westbrook
Gerald Traufetter
Gerald Warner
Geraldo Luis Lino
Gerhard Kramm
Gerhard Loebert
Gerrit van der Lingen
Giora Shaviv
Girma Orssengo
Glenn Beck
Glenn Czulada (Donation)
Glenn Schleed
Global Warming Meltdown
Global Warming or Global Governance?
Global Weirding
Godfrey Bloom
Gone Fishing
Google
Gordon J. Fulks
Graham Stringer
Grant R. Jeffrey
Green Bonds
Green Cars
Green Ideology
Green Religion
Green Tax
Green Tories
GreenViolence
Greenwashing
Greg Sullivan (Donation)
Gregg Thompson
Gregory Fegel
Gregory Young
Guillermo Gonzalez
GV Chilingar
Habibullo Abdussamatov
Haiti Earthquake
Hank Campbell
Hans H.J. Labohm
Hans Jelbring
Hans Kelp (Donation)
Hans Schreuder
Hans von Storch
Harold Ambler
Harold W. Lewis
Harrison Schmitt
Harry Binswanger
Harry Eagar
Harry Jackson
Harvey M. Sheldon
Headline Story
HeartlandGate
Heather Brown (Donation)
Heinz Lycklama
Henri Suyderhoud (Donation)
Henrik Svensmark
Henry Lamb
Henry Payne
Hide The Decline Video
Himalayan Glacier Data
Holly Martin (Donation)
Horst Borchert
Horst-Joachim Lüdecke
How About That!
How to Comment
Howard Bigham (Donation)
Howard Hayden
Howard Nemerov
Hurricane News
I Can Change Your Mind About Climate
Iain Murray
Ian Clark
Ian Drever (Donation)
Ian McEwan
Ian Plimer
Ian Ridpath (Donation)
Ian Wishart
Ice Chart
IceGate
Ileana Johnson Paugh
ImmunityGate
Important Announcement
Important Notice
Indur M. Goklany
International Climate Science Coalition
IPCC Fifth Assessment Report
IPCC Review
iPhone App
Irina Shlionskaya
Ivan Kenneally
Ivar Giaever
Ivo Vegter
J. D. Longstreet
J. Winston Porter
J.R. Dunn
Jack Dini
Jack Kelly
Jack Van Wingerden
James A. Marusek
James Delingpole
James E Steelman (Donation)
James Hawes (Donation)
James Heiser
James Inhofe
James Lewis
James Lovelock
James M. Taylor
James Macdonald
James Maropoulakis Denney
James R. Barrante
James Randi
James Rust
JAMES SHOTT
James Stewart (Donation)
James Tully (Donation)
Jan Janssen
Jan Suhr (Donation)
Jan-Erik Solheim
Janet Albrechtsen
Janet Daley
Janice Meyer (Donation)
Japan Earthquake
Jarl R. Ahlbeck
Jasper Kirkby
Jay Ambrose
Jay Lehr
Jay Richards
Jean Michel (Donation)
Jean-Michel Bélouve
Jeb Bush
Jeff Jacoby
Jeff Kuhn
Jeff Mirus
Jeff Poor
Jeffrey Bossert Clark
Jeffrey Folks
Jeffrey Glassman
Jeffrey Jagmin (Donation)
Jeffrey T. Kuhner
Jennifer Marohasy
Jeremy Clarkson
Jeremy Ross
Jerome Bastien
Jerome J. Schmitt
Jerry Taylor
Jet Stream Shift
Jill Farrell
Jim Berkland
Jim Chiodo
Jim Crawford
Jim Elsner
Jim Guirard
Jim Hollingsworth
Jim Lacey
Jim Luse
Jim Macdonald
Jim McConalogue
Jim O'Neill
Jim Peden
Jim Salinger
Joanne Nova
Joe Bastardi
Joe Daleo
Joe Fone
JOEL CONNELLY
Joel Gehrke
Johannes Schreuder (Donation)
John A. Shanahan
John Abbot
John Barnhart
John Brandt
John Brignell
John Burtis
John Christy
John Coleman
John Daly
John Droz, Jr
John Dunn
John Griffing
John H. Sununu
John Hinderaker
John Humphrys
John K. Swayze
John L. Casey
John Leonard
John Lott
John Lucas (Donation)
JOHN M. BRODER
John Mackey
John Mangun
John McLaughlin
John McLean
John Nicol
John O'Sullivan
John P. Costella
John Rabb (Donation)
John Ransom
John Redwood
John Reid
John Robson
John Rosenthal
John Spooner
John Stossel
John Sutherland
John Vennari
John Ziraldo
John Zyrkowski
Johnny Ball
Jon E McCloskey (Donation)
Jon Ferry
Jonathan A. Lesser
Jonathan Drake
Jonathan Drake (Donation)
Jonathan DuHamel
Jonathan Powell
Jonathon Moseley
Joseph A Olson
Joseph Bast
Joseph Bencini (Donation)
Joseph E. Postma
Joseph Farah
Josh Fulton
Judith Curry
Julia Reid (UKIP Member)
Julian Kenny
Jürgen Krönig
Jurriaan Maessen
Jyrki Kauppisen
KangarooGate
Karin McQuillan
Karl Bohnak
Kelly O'Connell
Kelvin Kemm
Ken Cuccinelli
Ken Green
Ken Ring
Ken Stewart
Ken Ward Jr.
Kenneth Haapala
Kenneth P. Green
Kesten C. Green
Kevin Baldeosingh
Kevin Klees
Kevin Libin
Kevin Mooney
Kevin VS Marshall (Donation)
Kevin Watts (Donation)
KIMBERLEY A. STRASSEL
Kingsley Guy
Kirk Melhuish
Kirk Myers
Kirtland Griffin
Kiwigate
Kjell Stordahl
Klaus L.E. Kaiser
Klaus-Eckart Puls
L. GORDON CROVITZ
Lance Endersbee
Larrey Anderson
Larry Bell
Larry Cosgrove
Laura Hills (Donation)
Laurence I. Gould
Law/Policy
Lawrence Solomon
Lee C. Gerhard
Leighton Steward
Len Srigley (Donation)
Leo Hickman
Leon Ashby
Leon Clifford
Leonard Weinstein
Let It Be
Letter
Letters@ClimateRealists.Com
Lewis Page
LF Khilyuk
Little Ice Age - BIG Chill
Lona Landowski (Donation)
Lord Beaverbrook
Lord Lawson
Lord Monckton
Lord Turnbull
Lorne Gunter
Lorrie Goldstein
Louis Woodhill
Lubos Motl
Lucka Kajfež Bogataj
Luke Barnard
Lyn Jenkins
M. Paul Lloyd
Mac Johnson
Madhav L Khandekar
Magnetic Polar Shift
MalariaGate
Malcolm Colless
Malcolm Roberts
Mann Made Climate Change
Marc Morano
Marc Sheppard
Marcel Meyer (Donation)
Marcus Brooks
Marie Luise Dött
Marita Noon
Mark Howarth
Mark Landsbaum
Mark Lawson
Mark Paquette
Mark Phillips (Donation)
Mark Piney (Donation)
Mark R. Warner
Mark Schumacher
Mark Shea
Mark Vogan
Mark W. Hendrickson
Martha Montelongo
Martin Cohen
Martin Durkin
Martin Hertzberg
Martin Hodgkins (Donation)
Martin Hurd (Donation)
Martyn Brown
Matt and Janet Thompson
Matt Dempsey
Matt Gurney
MATT PATTERSON
Matt Philbin
Matt Ridley
Matthew Cawood
Matthew Penn
Matthew Proctor (Donation)
Matthew Sinclair
Matti Vooro
Maurice Newman
Maurizio Morabito
Maxwell T. Boykoff
Meet The Sceptics
Meetings
Melanie Phillips
Merv Bendle
Met Office
Met Office BBQ Summer
Met Office Climate Scam
Met Office Decadal Forecast
Met Office Long Range Forecasts
Mexico 2010 Cop16
Michael Andrews
Michael Asher
Michael Asten
Michael Atkinson (Donation)
Michael Babbitt (Donation)
Michael Barone
Michael Beenstock
Michael Boyles (Donation)
Michael Buerk
Michael Cejnar (Donation)
Michael Coren
Michael Crichton
Michael F. Haverluck
Michael Hammer
Michael J. Economides
Michael Lind
Michael Miller (Donation)
Michael O'Leary
Michael Oberndorf
Michael R. Fox
Michael Shellenberger
Michael Shermer
Mike Foreman (Donation)
MIKE HULME
Mike Lockwood
Mike Norton-Griffiths
Mike Sneddon (Donation)
Million Kid March
Miranda Devine
Mobile Site
Mohib Ebrahim
Mojib Latif
Monthly Eclipse
Mr. FOIA (hero of Climategate email's)
Murdo MacDonald (Donation)
Muriel Newman
Murry Salby
Music
Mytheos Holt
Name Calling
Nancy Greene-Raine
Nancy J. Thorner
Nancy Neale
NASA
Nasif S. Nahle
Neal Bennet (Donation)
NED ROZELL
Neil Collins
Neil Henderson
Neil Mahony (Donation)
Neil McKnight (Donation)
Neil Reynolds
Neil Snyder
Neville Nicholls
New Site
Newsletter
Newspaper Article
Newt Gingrich
Nicholas Drapela
Nicholas Ricketts (Donation)
Nick Minchin
NICOLA SCAFETTA
Nigel Calder
Nigel Farage
Nigel Sitwell (Donation)
Niger Innis
Nikolai Dobretsov
Nils-Axel Mörner
Nir Shaviv
Noel Matthews
Noel Sheppard
Noor van Andel
Norm Kalmanovitch
Norman Alexander (Donation)
Norman Page
Norman Rogers
North Sea Storm Surge
Not Evil Just Wrong
Occupy Wall Street Protest
OG Sorokhtin
Ole Humlum
Oliver K. Manuel
Open Letter/Fax
Opinion
Opposing Views
Orrin G. Hatch
P Gosselin
Pachauri Conflict of Interest
Pal Brekke
Papers Challenging AGW
Pat Michaels
Patrick Henningsen
Patrick McMahon
Patrick Moore
Patrick Q Collins (Donation)
Patrik Jonsson
Paul Biggs
Paul C. Knappenberger
Paul Chesser
Paul Crovo
Paul Driessen
Paul H. Jossey
Paul Hamaker
Paul Homewood
Paul Hudson
Paul M. Murray
Paul Macrae
Paul Mulshine
Paul Murdock
Paul Oakley
Paul Roderick Gregory
Paul Shlichta
Paul Vreymans
Paul Wornham
Penn & Teller
Penny Rodriguez
PETE DU PONT
Peter A. Ziegler
Peter Ainsley (Donation)
Peter Buxton (Donation)
Peter C Glover
Peter Farrell
Peter Ferrara
Peter Ferro (Donation)
Peter Foster
Peter Foukal
Peter Gill
Peter Heck
Peter Hitchens
Peter J. Havanac
Peter LaChance
Peter Landesman
Peter Lilley
Peter Ravenscroft
Peter Schwerdtfeger
Peter Sissons
Peter Spencer
Peter Taylor
Peter Wilson
PETITION
Petr Chylek
Petter Tuvnes (Donation)
Phelim McAleer
Phil Bottomley (UKIP Supporter)
Phil Brennan
Phil Green
Phil Valentine
Philip Foster
Philip J. Klotzbach
Philip Sherwell
Philip Stott
Phillip A W Bratby
Phillip Leavitt (Donation)
PhotoGate
Pierre Latour
Pierre R. Latour
Piers Akerman
Piers Corbyn
Play
Please Donate
Pointman
Polarbeargate
Press Release
Prop 23
Public Poll (Climate Realists)
Public Polls
Public Warning
Q & A
QR Code
Queensland Flood
Rael Jean Isaac
Ralph Hostetter
Ralph Percy
Ralph Selman (Donation)
Randall Hoven
Randy Fardal
Raven Clabough
Ray Bates
Raymond Richman
Rebecca Terrell
Repeal The Act
Reply To Article
Reply To Letter
Reply To Media
Reply To Video
Report
Retraction
Rex Burr (Donation)
Rex Murphy
Reynold Stone (Donation)
Rhodes Fairbridge
Rich Apuzzo
Rich Lowry
Rich Trzupek
Richard Baehr
Richard Bruce (Donation)
Richard Cohen
Richard Courtney
Richard F. Yanda
Richard Haddad
Richard Holle
Richard J. Grant
Richard James
Richard Lamb (Donation)
Richard Lindzen
Richard Littlejohn
Richard Mackey
Richard North
Richard Pollock
Richard Treadgold
Richard Wellings
Rick Moran
Rick Perry
Rick Santorum
Rik Myslewski
Ritesh Arya
Rob Lyons
Rob Smith
Robert Bryce
Robert Coombes (Donation)
Robert D. Brinsmead
Robert Donnelly (Donation)
Robert Ellison
Robert Ferebauer (Donation)
Robert Ferguson
Robert H. Austin
Robert Hodges
Robert Laughlin
Robert M Wagner
Robert Matthews
Robert Rohlfing
Robert Sprinkel
Robert Tracinski
Robert W. Endlich
Robert W. Felix
Robert W. Wood
Robert Wood (Donation)
Robin Horbury
Robyn Wolfe (Donation)
Rod Liddle
Roger Andrews
Roger Aronoff
Roger F. Gay
ROGER HELMER
Roger L. Simon
Roger Pielke Jr.
Roger Pielke Sr.
Roger Tallbloke
Roger W. Cohen
Ron House
Ron Johnson
Ron Nurwisah
Ronald D. Voisin
Ronald Pate (Donation)
Ronald R. Cooke
Ross Clark
Ross Kaminsky
Ross McKitrick
Rosslyn Smith
Roy Clark
Roy Eappen (Donation)
Roy Spencer
Royal Society Review
Rupert Darwall
Rupert Wyndham
Russell Cook
Russian Temperature Data
Ruth Dudley Edwards
Ruth Lea
Ruth Rodger (Donation)
Ryan Maue
Salvatore Del Prete
Sammy Benoit
Sammy Wilson
Samuel Rodriquez
Sarah Palin
SatelliteGate
Satire
Science Under Attack
Scott Armstrong
Scott Denning
Sea Chart
Sea Level Gate
Sebastian Lüning
Selvaraj Kandasamy
Selwyn Duke
Shannon Goessling
Sherman Griffith (Donation)
Shunichi Akasofu
Simon Heffer
Simon Turnill
Site Announcements
Skeptic's Guide
Social Networking
Solar Climate Change
Solar Cycle 24
Solar Cycle 25
Solar Flare & Earthquake 2013
Solar News
SolarCycle25.com
SPICE
Sponsorship Donation FootstepMaps.com.au
Sponsorship Donation InfoComm Engineering
Spot The Deliberate Mistake
Spot The Difference
Stanislav Mishin
Stanley J. Penkala
Statement
Stefan Gorzula
Stephen Ashworth
Stephen Doughty
Stephen Glover
Stephen Murgatroyd
Stephen Wilde
Sterling Burnett
Steve Bettison
Steve Dickman (Donation)
Steve Fielding
Steve Goreham
Steve Hansen
Steve Jobs
Steve LaNore
Steve McIntyre
Steve Running
Steve Watson
Steven F. Hayward
Steven Goddard
Steven H. Yaskell
Steven Milloy
Stewart Franks
Stewart Meagher
Stuart Blackman
Stuart Clark
Supermoon
Svend Hendriksen
Swine Flu
Syun Akasofu
Tait Trussell
Ted Nordhaus
Teena Clipston
Terence Corcoran
Terence P. Jeffrey
Terrence Aym
Terri Jackson
Terry Crowley
Terry Hurlbut
Terry McCrann
The Branch Carbonian
The Emperor's New Clothes
The Geological Society
The Great Global Warming Swindle
The Green Swindle
The Greenhouse Conspiracy
The Marshall Institute
The Royal Society of New Zealand
The Rules Of The Game
Thomas Costello
Thomas E. Brewton
Thomas Fuller
Thomas Gillan (Donation)
Thomas Lifson
THOMAS P. SHEAHEN
Thomas Richard
Tim Ball
Tim Blair
Tim Channon
Tim Coleman
Tim Cullen
Tim Schowalter
Tim Stanley
Tim Worstall
Timothy Birdnow
Timothy Casey
Timothy Crome (Donation)
Todd Kuipers (Donation)
Tom Bethell
Tom Chivers
Tom Harris
Tom Nelson
Tom Quirk
Tom Russell
Tom V. Segalstad
Tony Abbott
Tony Elliott
Tony Hake
Tony Newbery
Tony Pann
Tony Phillips
Tony Rose
Torben Sørensen (Donation)
Transcript
Transit of Venus
Tree Ring Data
TreeGate
Trevor Kavanagh
Tropical Storm "Power Up" 2013
Trudy Schuett
True or False?
True Stetson
Truth Squad
Try this at home
Twitter
Tyler Watts

Click to get your own widget

The Unstoppable
Solar Cycles

Letters
Disclaimer
  • » News articles may contain quotes, these are copyright to the respective publication which will be stated, along with a link to the source article where available.
  • » If you feel your copyright has been violated please contact us and the article will be removed or amended at your request.
Articles Recently Viewed

8,921

Donations
  • » Please support the site by making a donation. No matter how big or small, your contribution helps to support the cause.
Recent Most Read

Show #11-20

See Stephen Wilde's Latest Article

Show articles by Stephen Wilde

All Time Most Read

Show #11-20

Climate Depot Feed
  • » Feed Error