View Article

view the latest news articles
MUST READ: Greenhouse Gases Can Cause Cooling! by Stephen Wilde: LLB (Hons.), Solicitor, Fellow of the Royal Meteorological Society
Monday, October 26th 2009, 2:48 AM EDT
Co2sceptic (Site Admin)
Greenhouse Gases Can Cause Cooling !

I thought that would attract attention. It’s the opposite of the general opinion so how can it be so?

The answer lies in the differing responses to greenhouse gases that can be observed over land and over sea. There is no reason why that could not have been realised 30 years ago.

Should the current consensus really be one of Man Made Global Cooling?
1) Over Land

Not much problem here. More greenhouse gases in the air such as water vapour or CO2 absorb more of the incoming solar energy than the Oxygen and Nitrogen in the air and then radiate it back and forth, up and down to increase the time it takes for that solar energy to depart the Earth system again as outgoing longwave radiation. It is the increase in that length of time that results in warming.

So far so good. All in accordance with the findings of Arrhenius, Tyndall and modern climatology.

2) Over Oceans.

This is where the problems arise and there are two.

i) The absorption capabilities of water.

Water is penetrated to depths of 100 metres or more by incoming solar energy in the ultraviolet and visible wavelengths but is not penetrated by infrared wavelengths.

Thus a proportion of incoming solar energy (in the infrared) never gets into the oceans to affect the ocean heat content (I prefer the term ocean energy content and will use it from now on).

The thing is that greenhouse gases absorb incoming solar energy at several wavelengths of the solar spectrum but only radiate it out again in the infrared.

Consequently increased greenhouse gases intercept some of the solar energy that would otherwise reach the ocean surface and penetrate it to add to ocean energy content.

To that extent greenhouse gases in the air effect a cooling of the oceans and it is the temperature of the oceans that controls the temperature of the air above.

The net effect of this process is global cooling caused by an increase in greenhouse gases.

There is some debate about the significance of that effect given the limited wavelengths of incoming solar energy that are intercepted but then one has to consider how sensitive the climate system is to changes in solar input and that is currently hotly debated in some circles.

ii) Evaporation.

Any extra energy added to the ocean surface will result in a faster rate of evaporation. Other factors are relevant but they need not concern us here. It is sufficient for present purposes that on average globally there is ongoing evaporation from all oceanic water surfaces most of the time.

That brings us back to that infrared radiation which reaches the ocean surfaces either directly from the sun or alternatively from what is known as downwelling infrared from the gas molecules in the air. That downwelling happens constantly even at night and worldwide and it has been theorised by global warming proponents that extra downwelling infrared from more greenhouse gases is at the heart of the proposed climate effect from human sources of CO2.

However the effect of downwelling infrared is always to use up all the infrared in increasing the temperature of the ocean surface molecules whilst leaving nothing in reserve to provide the extra energy required (the latent heat of evaporation) when the change of state occurs from water to vapour. That extra energy requirement is taken from the medium (water or air) in which it is most readily available. If the water is warmer then most will come from the water. If the air is warmer then most will come from the air. However over the Earth as a whole the water is nearly always warmer than the air (due to solar input) so inevitably the average global energy flow is from oceans to air via that latent heat of evaporation in the air and the energy needed is taken from the water. This leads to a thin (1mm deep) layer of cooler water over the oceans worldwide and below the evaporative region that is some 0.3C cooler than the ocean bulk below.

If there were no evaporation then there would simply be a smooth temperature gradient to the topmost molecules of the water surface with a temperature discontinuity at the surface where the water and air interface is located. The existence of that cooler layer with the temperature discontinuity 1mm below the surface is entirely a result of the fact that the evaporative process is a more effective energy transport system than the separate conductive and radiative processes. Indeed, the faster the rate of evaporation the deeper the level of temperature discontinuity will go and/or the larger the temperature differential will be between the cooler layer and the ocean bulk below.
See here:

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v358/n6389/abs/358738a0.html

especially this:

Sarmiento and Sundquist (1992) and Robertson and Watson (1992) raise the issue of ocean ``skin'' temperature.The temperature of ocean water within 1 mm of the ocean-atmosphere interface is known to be about 0.3C cooler than water in the bulk mixed layer due to thermal radiation and evaporation."

I have been engaged in a discussion with a young climatology professional who thought that evaporation from the ocean surface left behind a residue of surplus energy to warm the oceans by reducing the rate of energy release from the oceans and thus justifying the AGW scenario.

The idea itself is set out in more detail here:

http://www.realclimate.org/index.php/archives/2006/09/why-greenhouse-gases-heat-the-ocean/

My response is as follows, and I think this issue is at the heart of the reality or otherwise of human induced climate change:

The process of evaporation has a net cooling effect. That means that it takes more energy from the surrounding environment than is required to initiate it. A basic physical principle of thermodynamics. If that were not so then the effect of sweat evaporating would be neutral. One’s skin would feel no cooler.

Air above water is very rarely near saturated and then not for long so in global terms we can ignore the issue of humidity. High humidity generally leads to cloud rain and wind anyway which are cooling effects and so the warming effect from high humidity is generally self cancelling.

The extra downwelling IR (Infrared radiation) from extra CO2 does warm up the Knudsen layer of the ocean (the topmost few nanometres where all the evaporative action takes place) and perhaps few microns below it. That is what the temperature sensors record as an increase in ocean surface temperature when IR increases such as when a cloud passes over (just like CO2, clouds re-radiate energy downwards to the surface).

The Knudsen layer and a few microns below it (generally down to the penetrative depth of infra red) can become warmer than the rest of the 1mm deep layer of water below the Knudsen layer. The evaporative, conductive and radiative processes combined then set up a thermal gradient causing an upward flow of energy from water to air from where that 1mm layer touches the ocean bulk below, up across the cooler layer then to the Knudsen layer by reversing the normal (warm at the top and cool at the bottom) temperature gradient which exists from that 1mm layer down to the ocean bottom.

Upwards from the discontinuity between the ocean bulk and the 1mm cooler layer the thermal gradient is from warm at the bottom then through the cooler layer and then finally to warmer at the top.

Downwards from the discontinuity between the ocean bulk and the 1mm cooler layer the thermal gradient is from warm at the top to cool at the ocean bottom.

Notwithstanding that reversal of thermal gradient the flow of energy is always upward and it is the sheer power of the evaporative process which causes that phenomenon.

It is that power of evaporation that draws the energy upward from ocean to air whether the thermal gradient goes downward or upward. That is what evaporation does. It more than cancels the initial energy input from above. In the process it prevents the downward energy flow that would otherwise occur between the top and the bottom of the oceans.

The reason for that reversal of the thermal gradient is the power of evaporation in setting up that 0.3C 'cooler' layer at the top of the ocean bulk about 1mm thick and just below the Knudsen layer. Evaporation alone causes that cooler layer because it has a net cooling effect. Conduction and radiation cannot do it however big temperature differentials become. The result of the evaporative process is that energy flows much more readily from the oceans to the air than would otherwise be the case. In effect the evaporation sucks energy from the oceans against the thermal gradient within the ocean bulk and despite the warming of the topmost molecules caused by infra red radiation and then expels it to the air in the form of latent heat carried by water vapour.

The Knudsen layer and a few microns below it may be warmer than that 1mm layer beneath which is in turn 0.3C cooler than the ocean bulk because the temperature of the topmost molecules rises when there is an increase in downwelling IR. That is all that the sensors record. They record more energy in the top few microns but that does not indicate any warming of the rest of the lower 1mm layer above the ocean bulk. In fact that extra energy in the ocean air interface may actually provoke more cooling in the 1mm layer below it as I will now explain.

The higher temperature measured in the Knudsen layer and the few microns below it may not reduce the rate of energy flow out of the ocean as Realclimate and other AGW proponents propose. Any increase in the activity level of evaporation in the Knudsen layer increases the energy flow from below and in the process further cools the 1mm deep layer of water below it which then draws energy faster from the ocean bulk.

If the Knudsen layer warms from increased IR then the resulting increased rate of evaporation should cool the lower 1mm layer even more than the increased IR causes warming of the Knudsen layer so the temperature differential actually INCREASES at the discontinuity between the ocean bulk and the cooler layer above leading to a faster energy flow upward. If that cooler 1mm layer is indeed caused by evaporation drawing energy away upwards then more evaporation should logically cause more cooling of the ocean bulk not less.

Realclimate and others assume that if the Knudsen layer warms then the lower 1mm deep layer stays the same so that the temperature differential DECREASES and the energy flow upward also decreases.

They measure the temperature of the Knudsen layer and the few microns below it which are affected by infra red radiation and a point 5cm lower in the ocean bulk. They ignore the rest of that 1mm deep layer beneath the Knudsen layer.

They should instead measure the temperature of that 1mm layer below the few microns at the top which do become warmer and then measure the point 5cm down. They should find that the temperature gradient between the two points actually increases if the rate of evaporation increases.

They ignore the evaporative effect completely. Increased downwelling IR makes the Knudsen layer and a few microns below it affected by infra red a little warmer AND via increased evaporation further cools the 1mm layer below by an even greater amount. Evaporation has a net cooling effect. Always has, always will and the extra energy required by the evaporative process is drawn mainly or all from the water. Hence the cooling of that 1mm layer beneath.

Of course, if the air were to be warmer than the ocean surface then evaporation would take the extra energy required from the air rather than the water and that 1mm deep layer (0.3C cooler than the ocean bulk) would rise to the surface and dissipate but that doesn’t happen often or for long.

I think the point at the heart of this is that the depth of that 1mm layer and the size of the temperature differential where it meets the ocean bulk is a dynamic interaction dependent upon the speed of the evaporative process in the Knudsen layer above. Up to now it has been treated as a static phenomenon and I think that is wrong.

I propose that the dynamic nature of that layer actually works to prevent any change in the temperature of the molecules in the Knudsen layer from having any negative effect on the rate of energy flow from ocean to air.

Instead the rate of energy flow from ocean to air would be primarily governed by the rate of evaporation and not by temperature differentials.

In other words, the same package of infrared energy in the air will provoke two simultaneous effects. One effect will be to create a change in temperature differential between the topmost molecules of the water surface and the layers of water below. The other effect will be an increase in the rate of evaporation.

Of the two effects by far the greatest in terms of a change in the speed of energy transmission is the evaporative process. Thus the effect of Fourier’s Law (see below) is more than cancelled by the effect of the change in the rate of evaporation so instead of the energy flow from ocean to air decreasing it actually increases from any increase in downwelling IR.

The Realclimate description relies on Fourier’s Law alone which states that one of the parameters that controls energy flow between objects at different temperatures is the size of the temperature differential.

That is perfectly correct but that relates to conduction and not evaporation. If there were no evaporation then Fourier's Law would set up a smooth temperature gradient to the surface and there would be no Knudsen Layer.

The thing is that the evaporative process is much more powerful in shifting energy upward than that process which Fourier describes. That is why one gets that cooler layer and a temperature discontinuity at about 1mm deep instead of at the surface. That cooler layer is entirely a consequence of evaporation and nothing to do with conduction or radiation.

The existence of that cooler layer is evidence that the rate of evaporation is the primary influence on variability in the rate of ocean energy loss (apart from internal ocean circulation variability which is not relevant here) and it follows that more evaporation for the same rate of conduction and radiation (from a stable temperature differential) will send that cooler layer deeper and/or intensify the temperature differential between it and the ocean bulk below.

Changes in the evaporation rate from, say, higher or lower humidity in the air above, changes in windiness or changes in ocean surface area caused by waves will have a similar effect in varying the characteristics of that 1mm cooler layer.

So if one increases the rate of downwelling IR (thereby increasing the evaporation rate) then the increase in upward energy flow caused by the fall in the temperature of that 1mm layer will be greater than the decrease in upward energy flow that will result from any reduced temperature differential between the topmost Knudsen layer and the ocean bulk arising from the application of Fourier's Law.

With evaporation being the more powerful effect the rate of energy flow to the air above is likely to increase rather than decrease and the 1mm deep layer descend and/or intensify despite a warming of the topmost few microns.

As I said, Realclimate and those who rely on that source may have got the sign wrong.

So, faster evaporation caused by any increase in downwelling IR probably leads to a faster energy flow out of the oceans despite the potential constraint of Fourier’s Law. More IR means more evaporation which means a faster energy flow from ocean to air.

I know that is heresy but is it right or wrong ?”

Could an increase in greenhouse gases actually have a cooling effect over water by speeding up the rate of evaporation from the oceans thereby extracting energy faster from the oceans, speeding up the hydrological cycle and pushing energy faster to space ?

The thing is that despite many attempts I have never found an independent scientific authority to support the Realclimate assertion that extra IR at the surface does actually reduce the rate of energy loss from oceans to air, yet it is parroted automatically as gospel truth by AGW believers.

Another question seems to be whether the extra energy required by the evaporative phase change from water to vapour comes from the downwelling IR itself, from the air or from the water. Latent heat cannot be taken directly from the IR flux because the energy in it does not become heat until the IR has already interacted with water or air. For the energy required to come from the air the IR has to warm the air first but in fact the IR warms the topmost few microns of water first. Thus the latent heat must be taken from the water unless the air is already warmer and that is a very rare, localised temporary situation even in the tropics.

If the energy required for the extra evaporation does all or mostly come from the water then as I have explained it has the potential to more than offset the expected reduction in energy flow that would otherwise be caused by a warmer topmost few microns according to Fourier’s Law.

If evaporation contributes only a portion of the cooling of that 1mm layer (some or even most being attributable to conduction and radiation) then more evaporation would still cause even more cooling of that layer and would still be a mechanism for maintaining or increasing the energy flow to the air rather than decreasing it.

What is needed is firm evidence either way and the Realclimate description does not deal with the issue.

In any event whether more CO2 warms or cools the world the effect is trivial as against natural variability as I have explained elsewhere and would just be dealt with by a miniscule adjustment in the air circulations as the overall system maintains stability.

Summary.

Here I have set out reasons why the effect of greenhouse gases may be different depending on whether the surface beneath is water or land.

It appears that conventional climatology holds good over land but possibly not over water.

Extra greenhouse gases have a warming effect over land but a possible cooling effect over water.

The Earth’s surface is 70% water.

Other characteristics of the Earth will affect the net position such as the distribution of the land and sea surfaces but given the predominance of ocean surfaces and the fact that most energy comes in at the equator which is mostly oceanic then it seems most likely that the net global effect of more greenhouse gases is actually a miniscule cooling rather than a miniscule warming.

Still nothing to worry about though.

Show #11-20

Current Poll
» How much "Man Made" CO2 Is In The Earth's Atmosphere?
  • I think ALL of the CO2 in the Earth's Atmosphere is from man.
    graph bar 0 1%
  • I'm not sure how much "Man Made" CO2 is in the Earth's Atmosphere.
    graph bar 1 13%
  • There is .04% CO2 in the Earth's Atmosphere and of that "Man" has added an extra 4% (1 part in 62,500)
    graph bar 2 86%

you have already voted

Articles by Climate Realists and Topics

» Recently used highlighted

ALL #-E F-J K-O P-T U-Z
10:10 No Pressure
2010 Forecast
2011 Forecast
2012 Forecast
2012 USA Election
2013 Forecast
24 Hours of Reality
28Gate
A Chart to Debunk AGW
A Graph to Debunk AGW
A Moment Of Clarity
Acidic Oceans
Adam Yoshida
Adrian MacNair
Adrian Sach (Donation)
Advert
AfricaGate
African Drought
Ahmed Boucenna
Al Ritter
Alan Broone
Alan Carlin
Alan Caruba
Alan Cochrane
Alan Jones
Alan Moran
Alan Nicholl
Alan Siddons
Alan Smith (Donation)
Alan Tenczar (Donation)
Alan Tichmarsh
Alberta Election 2012
Alberto Miatello
Alec Evans (Donation)
Alec Pearson (Donation)
Alex Epstein
Alex Jones
Alex Newman
Allan Macrae
Allen Quist
Alok Mukherjee
Amanda Baillieu
Amazon Rain Forests
AmazonGate
American Meteorological Society
Amy Ridenour
An Inconvenient Truth
Andre Bijkerk
Andrew Bevan (Donation)
Andrew Bolt
Andrew Duncan (Donation)
Andrew J. Hoffman
Andrew Kenny
Andrew McKillop
Andrew Montford
Andrew Neil
Andrew Orlowski
Ann McElhinney
Ann Widdecombe
Anna Sanclement
Anthony Bright-Paul
Anthony Cox
Anthony G. Martin
Anthony J. Sadar
Anthony Watts
Anton Evseyev
Anton Yevseev
Antonio Mario Lorusso (Donation)
Arcady Tishkov
ArcticSnap.Com
Arno Arrak
Art Horn
Arthur Rorsch
Arthur Wiegenfeld
Arvid Pasto
Astrophysics v Meteorology
AtlasGate
Aubrey Vaughan
Audio
Augusto Mangini
Barrington Davey (Donation)
Barry Brill
Barry Cooper
Barry Napier
Barry Schwartz
Barry Woods
Barun S. Mitra
BBC
BBC Review
Ben Fordham
Ben Pile
Benny Peiser
Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature (BEST) Project
Berthold Klein
Betting
Beverly K. Eakman
Bill Board
Bill DiPuccio
Bill Frezza
Bill McKibben
Bill Stratton
Bjarne Andresen
Bjorn Lomborg
Blast From the Past
Bo Christiansen
Bob Ashworth
Bob Berman
Bob Carter
Bob Ellis
Bob Godfrey
Bob Lutz
Bob Tisdale
Bob Webster
Book
Boris Johnson
Brainwashing
Brendan O'Neill
Brent Bozell
Bret Stephens
Brian McNair
Brian Sussman
Brice Bosnich
Bring It On
Bruce Thompson
Bryan Fischer
Bryan Leyland
Burger King Sign
Buzz Aldrin
By Jove I Think They've Nearly Got It
C. R. de Freitas
Calem Smith
Cameron English
Campaign Against Climate Change
CampusReform.org
Carbon Trading
Carey Roberts
Carl Brehmer
Carrington 2012
Cartoon
Cathy Taibbi
Catlin Arctic Survey
Cause & Effect
Censorship
CERN
CFACT
Charles Anderson
Charles Booker (Donation)
Charles Memminger
Charles O'Connor (Donation)
Chip Knappenberger
Chris de Freitas
Chris Smith
Chriss W. Street
Christian Gerondeau
Christmas Donation
Christopher Booker
Christopher C. Horner
Christopher Chantrill
Christopher Essex
Christopher Jones (Donation)
Christopher Pearson
Chuck Rogér
Claes Johnson
Claude Allègre
Claude Sandroff
Cliff OLLIER
Climate Cognitive Dissonance
Climate Fools Day
Climate of Doubt
Climate Protest
Climate Reality Project
ClimateGate
ClimateRapidResponse.org
ClimateRealists.Com
climaterealists.org.nz
ClimateWiki.org
Climatic Research Unit
Clive James
Clouds
CO2 Experiment
CO2 Is Green
CO2 Level
CO2 Propaganda
Coldest Journey On Earth
Combustible
Comet C/2013 A1
Comment
Comment On Article
Conrad Black
conservation
CONVOY OF NO CONFIDENCE
COP18
Copenhagen Conference
Countryside Party
CowGate
Craig Idso
Craig Rucker
Crop Yield
Daily Quake
Dan Miller
Dan Pangburn
Daniel Compton
Daniel Croak (Donation)
Daniel Greenfield
Daniel Hannan
Daniel Henninger
Daniel M. Sweger
Danielle Smith
Daren Jonescu
Darren Pope
Darren Samuelsohn
Dave Clewlow (Donation)
Dave Dahl
Dave Epstein
Dave Hatter
David Appell
David Archibald
David Becker (Donation)
David Bellamy
David Bennett (Donation)
David Bredenkamp
David Brockless (Donation)
David Brook (Donation)
David Child
David Deming
David Dick
David E. Sumner
David Evans
David Garner (Donation)
David H. Douglass
David Hanna (Donation)
David Hathaway
David Henderson
David Howse (Donation)
David Icke
David Ivory
David Klenk (Donation)
David Lappi
David Legates
David Lungren
David R. Legates
David Rose
David Schnare
David Smith (Donation)
David Spady
David Spiegelhalter
David Whitehouse
Dean Grubbs
Death Threats
Debra J. Saunders
Delayed
Denis Ables
Denis Rancourt
Dennis Ambler
Dennis Boothby
Dennis Byrne
Dennis T. Avery
Derek Alker
Deroy Murdock
Des Moore
Dexter Wright
Diana Allan (Donation)
Dick Warburton
Dominic Lawson
Dominik Jung
Don Blankenship
Don Easterbrook
Don Parkes
Don Petersen
Don Pierce (Donation)
Don Surber
Donald Trump
Donald Williams (Donation)
Donna Laframboise
Doreen Alli Linder
Doug L. Hoffman
Doug Wyatt
Douglas Cohen
Douglas Cotton
Douglas J. Keenan
Duggan Flanakin
Duncan Davidson
E. Calvin Beisner
Earthquake Research
Earthquakes (>=7.5) 2012
Earthquakes (>=7.5) 2013
Earthquakes (>=7) 2012
Earthquakes (>=7) 2013
Ed Berry
Ed Caryl
Ed Hiserodt
Ed Hoskins
Ed West
Editorial
Education
Edward Barnes
Edward F Blick
Edward Lane
Edward Moran
Edward R. Long
Edward Wimberley
Edwin X Berry
Elisa Pardo
Elizabeth Auld (Donation)
Email
Emily Oster
Energy & Fuel
EnergyGate
Environmentalism
Erik Kempers (Donation)
Erik Wemple
Erl Happ
Ernst Georg Beck
Exclusive
F. Swemson
Facebook
FakeGate
Falling Birds
Fan Page
FAQ
Ferenc Miskolczi
Film & TV
Financial
Finis Gillespie (Donation)
Fire James Hansen
FloodGate
Floor Anthoni
Food
Forrest Mims III
Fortunato F Condo (Donation)
Forum
Frank Davis
Frank J. Tamel
Frank J. Tipler
Frank Lansner
Frank Sherosky
Fraser Nelson
Fred Dardick
Fred Singer
Frederick Forsyth
Freeman Dyson
Fritz Vahrenholt
Front Page News
Frozen Al Gore
Funding
Gai Lehn (Donation)
Garrett Bastardi
Garth Paltridge
Gary DeBois (Donation)
Gary Novak
Gary Sutton
Gary Thompson
Gary Williams (Donation)
Gavin Cooke
Gayam Walter (Donation)
Geert Groot Koerkamp
Geoff Sharp
Geoffrey Lean
Geoffrey Lehmann
Geoffrey Temple (Donation)
Geological Society of America (GSA)
George Carlin
George Christensen
George Gardner (Donation)
George Giles
George Jonas
George Kukla
George Pell
George Will
Gerald T. Westbrook
Gerald Traufetter
Gerald Warner
Geraldo Luis Lino
Gerhard Kramm
Gerhard Loebert
Gerrit van der Lingen
Giora Shaviv
Girma Orssengo
Glenn Beck
Glenn Czulada (Donation)
Glenn Schleed
Global Warming Meltdown
Global Warming or Global Governance?
Global Weirding
Godfrey Bloom
Gone Fishing
Google
Gordon J. Fulks
Graham Stringer
Grant R. Jeffrey
Green Bonds
Green Cars
Green Ideology
Green Religion
Green Tax
Green Tories
GreenViolence
Greenwashing
Greg Sullivan (Donation)
Gregg Thompson
Gregory Fegel
Gregory Young
Guillermo Gonzalez
GV Chilingar
Habibullo Abdussamatov
Haiti Earthquake
Hank Campbell
Hans H.J. Labohm
Hans Jelbring
Hans Kelp (Donation)
Hans Schreuder
Hans von Storch
Harold Ambler
Harold W. Lewis
Harrison Schmitt
Harry Binswanger
Harry Eagar
Harry Jackson
Harvey M. Sheldon
Headline Story
HeartlandGate
Heather Brown (Donation)
Heinz Lycklama
Henri Suyderhoud (Donation)
Henrik Svensmark
Henry Lamb
Henry Payne
Hide The Decline Video
Himalayan Glacier Data
Holly Martin (Donation)
Horst Borchert
Horst-Joachim Lüdecke
How About That!
How to Comment
Howard Bigham (Donation)
Howard Hayden
Howard Nemerov
Hurricane News
I Can Change Your Mind About Climate
Iain Murray
Ian Clark
Ian Drever (Donation)
Ian McEwan
Ian Plimer
Ian Ridpath (Donation)
Ian Wishart
Ice Chart
IceGate
Ileana Johnson Paugh
ImmunityGate
Important Announcement
Important Notice
Indur M. Goklany
International Climate Science Coalition
IPCC Fifth Assessment Report
IPCC Review
iPhone App
Irina Shlionskaya
Ivan Kenneally
Ivar Giaever
Ivo Vegter
J. D. Longstreet
J. Winston Porter
J.R. Dunn
Jack Dini
Jack Kelly
Jack Van Wingerden
James A. Marusek
James Delingpole
James E Steelman (Donation)
James Hawes (Donation)
James Heiser
James Inhofe
James Lewis
James Lovelock
James M. Taylor
James Macdonald
James Maropoulakis Denney
James R. Barrante
James Randi
James Rust
JAMES SHOTT
James Stewart (Donation)
James Tully (Donation)
Jan Janssen
Jan Suhr (Donation)
Jan-Erik Solheim
Janet Albrechtsen
Janet Daley
Janice Meyer (Donation)
Japan Earthquake
Jarl R. Ahlbeck
Jasper Kirkby
Jay Ambrose
Jay Lehr
Jay Richards
Jean Michel (Donation)
Jean-Michel Bélouve
Jeb Bush
Jeff Jacoby
Jeff Kuhn
Jeff Mirus
Jeff Poor
Jeffrey Bossert Clark
Jeffrey Folks
Jeffrey Glassman
Jeffrey Jagmin (Donation)
Jeffrey T. Kuhner
Jennifer Marohasy
Jeremy Clarkson
Jeremy Ross
Jerome Bastien
Jerome J. Schmitt
Jerry Taylor
Jet Stream Shift
Jill Farrell
Jim Berkland
Jim Chiodo
Jim Crawford
Jim Elsner
Jim Guirard
Jim Hollingsworth
Jim Lacey
Jim Luse
Jim Macdonald
Jim McConalogue
Jim O'Neill
Jim Peden
Jim Salinger
Joanne Nova
Joe Bastardi
Joe Daleo
Joe Fone
JOEL CONNELLY
Joel Gehrke
Johannes Schreuder (Donation)
John A. Shanahan
John Abbot
John Barnhart
John Brandt
John Brignell
John Burtis
John Christy
John Coleman
John Daly
John Droz, Jr
John Dunn
John Griffing
John H. Sununu
John Hinderaker
John Humphrys
John K. Swayze
John L. Casey
John Leonard
John Lott
John Lucas (Donation)
JOHN M. BRODER
John Mackey
John Mangun
John McLaughlin
John McLean
John Nicol
John O'Sullivan
John P. Costella
John Rabb (Donation)
John Ransom
John Redwood
John Reid
John Robson
John Rosenthal
John Spooner
John Stossel
John Sutherland
John Vennari
John Ziraldo
John Zyrkowski
Johnny Ball
Jon E McCloskey (Donation)
Jon Ferry
Jonathan A. Lesser
Jonathan Drake
Jonathan Drake (Donation)
Jonathan DuHamel
Jonathan Powell
Jonathon Moseley
Joseph A Olson
Joseph Bast
Joseph Bencini (Donation)
Joseph E. Postma
Joseph Farah
Josh Fulton
Judith Curry
Julia Reid (UKIP Member)
Julian Kenny
Jürgen Krönig
Jurriaan Maessen
Jyrki Kauppisen
KangarooGate
Karin McQuillan
Karl Bohnak
Kelly O'Connell
Kelvin Kemm
Ken Cuccinelli
Ken Green
Ken Ring
Ken Stewart
Ken Ward Jr.
Kenneth Haapala
Kenneth P. Green
Kesten C. Green
Kevin Baldeosingh
Kevin Klees
Kevin Libin
Kevin Mooney
Kevin VS Marshall (Donation)
Kevin Watts (Donation)
KIMBERLEY A. STRASSEL
Kingsley Guy
Kirk Melhuish
Kirk Myers
Kirtland Griffin
Kiwigate
Kjell Stordahl
Klaus L.E. Kaiser
Klaus-Eckart Puls
L. GORDON CROVITZ
Lance Endersbee
Larrey Anderson
Larry Bell
Larry Cosgrove
Laura Hills (Donation)
Laurence I. Gould
Law/Policy
Lawrence Solomon
Lee C. Gerhard
Leighton Steward
Len Srigley (Donation)
Leo Hickman
Leon Ashby
Leon Clifford
Leonard Weinstein
Let It Be
Letter
Letters@ClimateRealists.Com
Lewis Page
LF Khilyuk
Little Ice Age - BIG Chill
Lona Landowski (Donation)
Lord Beaverbrook
Lord Lawson
Lord Monckton
Lord Turnbull
Lorne Gunter
Lorrie Goldstein
Louis Woodhill
Lubos Motl
Lucka Kajfež Bogataj
Luke Barnard
Lyn Jenkins
M. Paul Lloyd
Mac Johnson
Madhav L Khandekar
Magnetic Polar Shift
MalariaGate
Malcolm Colless
Malcolm Roberts
Mann Made Climate Change
Marc Morano
Marc Sheppard
Marcel Meyer (Donation)
Marcus Brooks
Marie Luise Dött
Marita Noon
Mark Howarth
Mark Landsbaum
Mark Lawson
Mark Paquette
Mark Phillips (Donation)
Mark Piney (Donation)
Mark R. Warner
Mark Schumacher
Mark Shea
Mark Vogan
Mark W. Hendrickson
Martha Montelongo
Martin Cohen
Martin Durkin
Martin Hertzberg
Martin Hodgkins (Donation)
Martin Hurd (Donation)
Martyn Brown
Matt and Janet Thompson
Matt Dempsey
Matt Gurney
MATT PATTERSON
Matt Philbin
Matt Ridley
Matthew Cawood
Matthew Penn
Matthew Proctor (Donation)
Matthew Sinclair
Matti Vooro
Maurice Newman
Maurizio Morabito
Maxwell T. Boykoff
Meet The Sceptics
Meetings
Melanie Phillips
Merv Bendle
Met Office
Met Office BBQ Summer
Met Office Climate Scam
Met Office Decadal Forecast
Met Office Long Range Forecasts
Mexico 2010 Cop16
Michael Andrews
Michael Asher
Michael Asten
Michael Atkinson (Donation)
Michael Babbitt (Donation)
Michael Barone
Michael Beenstock
Michael Boyles (Donation)
Michael Buerk
Michael Cejnar (Donation)
Michael Coren
Michael Crichton
Michael F. Haverluck
Michael Hammer
Michael J. Economides
Michael Lind
Michael Miller (Donation)
Michael O'Leary
Michael Oberndorf
Michael R. Fox
Michael Shellenberger
Michael Shermer
Mike Foreman (Donation)
MIKE HULME
Mike Lockwood
Mike Norton-Griffiths
Mike Sneddon (Donation)
Million Kid March
Miranda Devine
Mobile Site
Mohib Ebrahim
Mojib Latif
Monthly Eclipse
Mr. FOIA (hero of Climategate email's)
Murdo MacDonald (Donation)
Muriel Newman
Murry Salby
Music
Mytheos Holt
Name Calling
Nancy Greene-Raine
Nancy J. Thorner
Nancy Neale
NASA
Nasif S. Nahle
Neal Bennet (Donation)
NED ROZELL
Neil Collins
Neil Henderson
Neil Mahony (Donation)
Neil McKnight (Donation)
Neil Reynolds
Neil Snyder
Neville Nicholls
New Site
Newsletter
Newspaper Article
Newt Gingrich
Nicholas Drapela
Nicholas Ricketts (Donation)
Nick Minchin
NICOLA SCAFETTA
Nigel Calder
Nigel Farage
Nigel Sitwell (Donation)
Niger Innis
Nikolai Dobretsov
Nils-Axel Mörner
Nir Shaviv
Noel Matthews
Noel Sheppard
Noor van Andel
Norm Kalmanovitch
Norman Alexander (Donation)
Norman Page
Norman Rogers
North Sea Storm Surge
Not Evil Just Wrong
Occupy Wall Street Protest
OG Sorokhtin
Ole Humlum
Oliver K. Manuel
Open Letter/Fax
Opinion
Opposing Views
Orrin G. Hatch
P Gosselin
Pachauri Conflict of Interest
Pal Brekke
Papers Challenging AGW
Pat Michaels
Patrick Henningsen
Patrick McMahon
Patrick Moore
Patrick Q Collins (Donation)
Patrik Jonsson
Paul Biggs
Paul C. Knappenberger
Paul Chesser
Paul Crovo
Paul Driessen
Paul H. Jossey
Paul Hamaker
Paul Homewood
Paul Hudson
Paul M. Murray
Paul Macrae
Paul Mulshine
Paul Murdock
Paul Oakley
Paul Roderick Gregory
Paul Shlichta
Paul Vreymans
Paul Wornham
Penn & Teller
Penny Rodriguez
PETE DU PONT
Peter A. Ziegler
Peter Ainsley (Donation)
Peter Buxton (Donation)
Peter C Glover
Peter Farrell
Peter Ferrara
Peter Ferro (Donation)
Peter Foster
Peter Foukal
Peter Gill
Peter Heck
Peter Hitchens
Peter J. Havanac
Peter LaChance
Peter Landesman
Peter Lilley
Peter Ravenscroft
Peter Schwerdtfeger
Peter Sissons
Peter Spencer
Peter Taylor
Peter Wilson
PETITION
Petr Chylek
Petter Tuvnes (Donation)
Phelim McAleer
Phil Bottomley (UKIP Supporter)
Phil Brennan
Phil Green
Phil Valentine
Philip Foster
Philip J. Klotzbach
Philip Sherwell
Philip Stott
Phillip A W Bratby
Phillip Leavitt (Donation)
PhotoGate
Pierre Latour
Pierre R. Latour
Piers Akerman
Piers Corbyn
Play
Please Donate
Pointman
Polarbeargate
Press Release
Prop 23
Public Poll (Climate Realists)
Public Polls
Public Warning
Q & A
QR Code
Queensland Flood
Rael Jean Isaac
Ralph Hostetter
Ralph Percy
Ralph Selman (Donation)
Randall Hoven
Randy Fardal
Raven Clabough
Ray Bates
Raymond Richman
Rebecca Terrell
Repeal The Act
Reply To Article
Reply To Letter
Reply To Media
Reply To Video
Report
Retraction
Rex Burr (Donation)
Rex Murphy
Reynold Stone (Donation)
Rhodes Fairbridge
Rich Apuzzo
Rich Lowry
Rich Trzupek
Richard Baehr
Richard Bruce (Donation)
Richard Cohen
Richard Courtney
Richard F. Yanda
Richard Haddad
Richard Holle
Richard J. Grant
Richard James
Richard Lamb (Donation)
Richard Lindzen
Richard Littlejohn
Richard Mackey
Richard North
Richard Pollock
Richard Treadgold
Richard Wellings
Rick Moran
Rick Perry
Rick Santorum
Rik Myslewski
Ritesh Arya
Rob Lyons
Rob Smith
Robert Bryce
Robert Coombes (Donation)
Robert D. Brinsmead
Robert Donnelly (Donation)
Robert Ellison
Robert Ferebauer (Donation)
Robert Ferguson
Robert H. Austin
Robert Hodges
Robert Laughlin
Robert M Wagner
Robert Matthews
Robert Rohlfing
Robert Sprinkel
Robert Tracinski
Robert W. Endlich
Robert W. Felix
Robert W. Wood
Robert Wood (Donation)
Robin Horbury
Robyn Wolfe (Donation)
Rod Liddle
Roger Andrews
Roger Aronoff
Roger F. Gay
ROGER HELMER
Roger L. Simon
Roger Pielke Jr.
Roger Pielke Sr.
Roger Tallbloke
Roger W. Cohen
Ron House
Ron Johnson
Ron Nurwisah
Ronald D. Voisin
Ronald Pate (Donation)
Ronald R. Cooke
Ross Clark
Ross Kaminsky
Ross McKitrick
Rosslyn Smith
Roy Clark
Roy Eappen (Donation)
Roy Spencer
Royal Society Review
Rupert Darwall
Rupert Wyndham
Russell Cook
Russian Temperature Data
Ruth Dudley Edwards
Ruth Lea
Ruth Rodger (Donation)
Ryan Maue
Salvatore Del Prete
Sammy Benoit
Sammy Wilson
Samuel Rodriquez
Sarah Palin
SatelliteGate
Satire
Science Under Attack
Scott Armstrong
Scott Denning
Sea Chart
Sea Level Gate
Sebastian Lüning
Selvaraj Kandasamy
Selwyn Duke
Shannon Goessling
Sherman Griffith (Donation)
Shunichi Akasofu
Simon Heffer
Simon Turnill
Site Announcements
Skeptic's Guide
Social Networking
Solar Climate Change
Solar Cycle 24
Solar Cycle 25
Solar Flare & Earthquake 2013
Solar News
SolarCycle25.com
SPICE
Sponsorship Donation FootstepMaps.com.au
Sponsorship Donation InfoComm Engineering
Spot The Deliberate Mistake
Spot The Difference
Stanislav Mishin
Stanley J. Penkala
Statement
Stefan Gorzula
Stephen Ashworth
Stephen Doughty
Stephen Glover
Stephen Murgatroyd
Stephen Wilde
Sterling Burnett
Steve Bettison
Steve Dickman (Donation)
Steve Fielding
Steve Goreham
Steve Hansen
Steve Jobs
Steve LaNore
Steve McIntyre
Steve Running
Steve Watson
Steven F. Hayward
Steven Goddard
Steven H. Yaskell
Steven Milloy
Stewart Franks
Stewart Meagher
Stuart Blackman
Stuart Clark
Supermoon
Svend Hendriksen
Swine Flu
Syun Akasofu
Tait Trussell
Ted Nordhaus
Teena Clipston
Terence Corcoran
Terence P. Jeffrey
Terrence Aym
Terri Jackson
Terry Crowley
Terry Hurlbut
Terry McCrann
The Branch Carbonian
The Emperor's New Clothes
The Geological Society
The Great Global Warming Swindle
The Green Swindle
The Greenhouse Conspiracy
The Marshall Institute
The Royal Society of New Zealand
The Rules Of The Game
Thomas Costello
Thomas E. Brewton
Thomas Fuller
Thomas Gillan (Donation)
Thomas Lifson
THOMAS P. SHEAHEN
Thomas Richard
Tim Ball
Tim Blair
Tim Channon
Tim Coleman
Tim Cullen
Tim Schowalter
Tim Stanley
Tim Worstall
Timothy Birdnow
Timothy Casey
Timothy Crome (Donation)
Todd Kuipers (Donation)
Tom Bethell
Tom Chivers
Tom Harris
Tom Nelson
Tom Quirk
Tom Russell
Tom V. Segalstad
Tony Abbott
Tony Elliott
Tony Hake
Tony Newbery
Tony Pann
Tony Phillips
Tony Rose
Torben Sørensen (Donation)
Transcript
Transit of Venus
Tree Ring Data
TreeGate
Trevor Kavanagh
Tropical Storm "Power Up" 2013
Trudy Schuett
True or False?
True Stetson
Truth Squad
Try this at home
Twitter
Tyler Watts

Click to get your own widget

CO2 Contributed by
Human Activity:
12 to 15ppmv

Letters
Disclaimer
  • » News articles may contain quotes, these are copyright to the respective publication which will be stated, along with a link to the source article where available.
  • » If you feel your copyright has been violated please contact us and the article will be removed or amended at your request.
Articles Recently Viewed

128,076

Donations
  • » Please support the site by making a donation. No matter how big or small, your contribution helps to support the cause.
Recent Most Read

Show #11-20

See Stephen Wilde's Latest Article

Show articles by Stephen Wilde

All Time Most Read

Show #11-20

Climate Depot Feed
  • » Feed Error