# Articles Tagged "Jerome J. Schmitt"

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Wednesday, June 6th 2012, 10:25 AM EDT
Hadley CRUT3 global temperature anomaly. Reproduced from Prof. Lindzen's presentation to House of Commons, Slide 11 of 58 -- with superimposed absolute temperature in red on left added for comparison.

What percentage change in global mean temperature (GMT) has occurred since the Industrial Revolution began? This can be calculated only by using an absolute temperature scale. Answer = +0.3%.

Can this be so alarming to Al Gore? Indeed, the Kelvin absolute scale for temperature is one of only seven basic units of measure recognized in the International System of Units. Temperature measures the heat content of a substance -- a simple linear relation so long as the zero of the temperature scale is properly placed. Heat itself is a form of energy measured in joules, calories, or BTUs. The thermodynamic science of heat flow requires the use of Kelvin because Kelvin eliminates the problem of negative temperature readings encountered with the Celsius or Fahrenheit scales. Heat can flow into and out of any mass, be it solid, liquid, or gas. Reduction of heat makes it colder. There is no such thing as negative heat (anti-heat?). Therefore, negative temperature conveys no meaning, either.

Absolute zero temperature occurs at -273.15º C, or -491.67º F, and signifies a state of matter displaying complete absence of heat. The PBS NOVA television program broadcast an excellent introduction to the science of cryogenics and its fascinating history. Anders Celsius invented his centigrade scale in the late 18th century. Zero of Celsius scale is the temperature of ice-water (32º F), while 100º C is the boiling point (212º F) of water at sea level -- both chosen by Celsius because they are easily reproduced as experimental temperature calibration standards in laboratories around the world. In 1848, Lord Kelvin invented his eponymous thermodynamic temperature scale which employs the same "degree" as the Celsius scale but shifts the zero point to absolute zero1. Therefore, any temperature value recorded in Celsius can be easily converted to Kelvin just by adding 273.15.
Monday, January 23rd 2012, 6:54 AM EST
For over 350 years, some of the greatest minds of science struggled to prove what was known as Fermat's Last Theorem - the idea that a certain simple equation had no solutions.

Imagine if I told you that I had just solved Fermat's Last Theorem -- but I was keeping the proof to myself for proprietary reasons. "I'm an expert, take my word for it!" Of course, blind-faith is not how mathematics or science works. Hard sciences are infused with mathematics; this extends to the medical, engineering and industrial disciplines. Standards of professional conduct have broken down, however, in Climate Science,

Since the Enlightenment scientific progress has relied upon publication of logical and empirical "proofs" for new theories and theorems. This practice serves to disseminate the new knowledge generated, resulting in peer review. Specialists in the field have the most interest in reading particular publications; they potentially have the most to gain from the new learning, and they will likely have the most relevant things to say in response. Honest scholars seek the truth and are happy when an error in the record is corrected. However it is not necessarily known a-priori who is the most expert among the readership, or who will deliver the best, most cogent replies that might either concur or differ with a proposed new theory. Therefore true scientists seek the widest possible audience for their work. In an intellectual process akin to crowd-sourcing, the most reliable, truthful theories emerge over time.

In our lillustrative case,

"Despite large prizes being offered for a solution, Fermat's Last Theorem remained unsolved. It has the dubious distinction of being the theorem with the largest number of published false proofs."
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