Articles Tagged "Stephen Wilde"
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Wednesday, April 10th 2013, 4:33 PM EDT
How Convection Responds To Greenhouse Gases So As To Maintain The Hydrostatic Equilibrium Of An Atmosphere
Guest post by Stephen Wilde, who has been a member of the Royal Meteorological Society since 1968.
This article is complementary to Stephen Wilde’s earlier works at:
New Climate Model
and is consistent with the cause of the so called greenhouse effect being atmospheric mass held off a surface within a gravitational field and subjected to insolation.
Convective overturning within any horizontal layer of gases around a planet and held off the surface against the force of gravity revolves around the point where the upward pressure gradient force within the atmosphere achieves hydrostatic balance with the downward force of gravity. At that point kinetic energy (KE or heat) matches potential energy (PE which is not heat) in any molecules present.
It is Earth’s surface temperature enhancement of 33K above the temperature predicted by radiative physics that provides the kinetic energy required at the surface to maintain the upward pressure gradient force. That kinetic energy is locked into constant convective overturning and cannot be radiated to space without the mass of the atmosphere falling to the surface.
If tropopause height is raised by upward convection by the force of rising air from below then it must descend at some other location where the force of uplift is absent or less strong. Thus tropopause height will always be irregular and fluctuating up and down from place to place. Uneven surface heating causing density variations in the horizontal plane makes convective overturning unavoidable with or without GHGs.
Rising air has enough kinetic energy (KE) to overcome the downward force of gravity which seeks to both pull down and compress gases. That downward force can conveniently be represented by the quantity of potential energy (PE) held by atmospheric molecules suspended off the surface.
It follows that descending air does not have sufficient KE to overcome the downward force of gravity. PE can then be said to exceed KE.
At the surface, molecules contain only KE and as height is gained PE takes over from KE because as molecules rise into regions of lower density they move further apart and vibrate less. Kinetic energy (heat) is transformed into potential energy which is not heat and does not radiate.
For Earth’s troposphere, molecules involved in convection can only rise as far as the tropopause because at that level there is an inversion layer containing warmer, lighter air. Colder, denser air, being heavier, will always remain at a lower height than warmer, lighter air.
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Monday, January 14th 2013, 1:55 PM EST
This is the usual form of the Ideal Gas Law:
where P is the pressure of the gas, V is the volume of the gas, n is the amount of substance of gas (also known as number of moles), T is the temperature of the gas and R is the ideal, or universal, gas constant, equal to the product of Boltzmann's constant and Avogadro's constant.
The Ideal Gas Law as set out above is a representation of certain physical relationships and is therefore not about absolute values.
It is widely known how the various terms within that equation respond to changes in any one or more of them,
P and V are inversely proportional to each other so a rise in Pressure results in reduced Volume and vice versa.
Increasing either P or V without reducing the other requires an increase in
n – total atmospheric mass and/or
R – the gas constant which is related to the strength of the gravitational field and/or
T – Temperature.
The product of n, R and T then rises to match the increased product of P and V.
Monday, December 17th 2012, 6:56 PM EST
Warming ? - What Warming ?
Last year I produced an article entitled “ Visual Proof Of Global Cooling since 2007” which can be found along with my other work here at ClimateRealists.com
It is now time for a short update so readers are now invited to compare the latest chart with the charts for the same date and time in 2007 and in 2012.
It can readily be seen that the cooling process over and around the North Pole has intensified over the past 12 months.
In view of reports from the southern hemisphere I suspect that the South Pole is behaving in a similar manner. First the original chart from 2007
Below the Temperature chart taken from today
Saturday, December 15th 2012, 8:09 AM EST
An attempt is made to reconcile the diabatic and adiabatic processes within a planetary atmosphere and in doing so show how changes in the radiative characeristics of constituent molecules in an atmosphere might not have an effect on the equilibrium temperature of the atmosphere and of the surface beneath it.
Applying the proposed scenario would appear to indicate why and how planetary atmospheres adjust themselves to the ideal lapse rate set by gravity despite divergences from that ideal lapse rate within the vertical temperature profile of the atmosphere.
Essentially, the adiabatic and diabatic loops must always match each other on any given planet at equilibrium because they are then of equal size and run at equal speed but are of opposite sign.
Thursday, December 6th 2012, 7:08 PM EST
1) This is the third in a series of short articles which purport to simplify and explain the basic workings of a climate system. It is applicable to any planet with an atmosphere.
I have previously established in my first article (An Accounting Error by Climate Science.) that the entire mass of the atmosphere contributes to the warming of the surface below it.
In my second article (Earth’s Atmosphere Is Warmed Primarily By Molecules That Are Not Greenhouse Gases.) established that it is gases which are not so called greenhouse gases that contribute most to the warming effect both in absolute terms and proportionately.
Intrinsic to the whole scenario is the fact that the surface temperature of a planet with an atmosphere is fixed by mass, gravity and insolation alone so that changes in the composition of the atmosphere can have no effect.
The proof is the simple established fact that at the same atmospheric pressure the temperatures within the atmospheres of both Earth and Venus are much the same when simply adjusted for their different distances from the sun.
Their vastly differing atmospheric compositions make no difference.
This article goes on to consider how that must be achieved.
Wednesday, December 5th 2012, 12:59 PM EST
In my previous article (An Accounting Error by Climate Science). I explained why one needs to consider the entire mass of the atmosphere when accounting for the additional warmth retained by planets with atmospheres.
That in itself removes any need for concern about greenhouse gases (GHGs) in our atmosphere because they form such a tiny fraction of the total mass. In particular, our emissions of CO2 add virtually nothing to total atmospheric mass.
I also explained why the extra warmth at the surface is provided by compression of descending air converting potential energy (PE) to kinetic energy (KE) and not from downward radiation from GHGs in the air warming the ground beneath.
We can now take another step and consider the thermal behaviour of GHGs and compare that with the thermal behaviour of non GHGs which form by far the greater proportion of our atmosphere.
Imagine an atmosphere with GHGs and no other gases.
Radiation comes in and is instantly absorbed and re emitted by those GHGs which reach and maintain the maximum temperature possible at that particular level of irradiation due to the constant arrival of new solar input.
50% is instantly radiated upwards and leaves the system for space.
50% is instantly radiated downward, hits the surface which warms and instantly radiates out from the surface again back to space.
The GHGs cannot absorb any of the upward return of radiation from the ground because they are already at the maximum temperature permitted by the incoming solar radiation.
Monday, December 3rd 2012, 2:23 PM EST
The atmosphere warms the Earth by 33C (some arrive at different numbers but that doesn’t matter here) simply because a quantity of kinetic energy is constantly being recycled up and down within the atmosphere so as to supply additional energy to the surface in addition to incoming solar energy at any given moment.
The cycling process involves the conversion of that kinetic energy to gravitational potential energy and back again. During the up and down cycling process potential energy is not available to the exchange of radiation in and out of the Earth system but it does become available for radiating out to space when it is returned downwards and converted back from potential energy to kinetic energy again at the surface.
Tuesday, May 15th 2012, 1:03 PM EDT
Variations in ozone in the lower stratosphere could be the main reason for the global warming seen in the past few decades, according to a new paper in press at the Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics. It is claimed that the new model is capable of explaining 82% of the total Earth temperature variability.
Nataliya Kilifarska of the National Institute of Geophysics, Geodesy and Geography, in Sofia, Bulgaria, presents a powerful analysis that confirms a strong relationship between stratospheric ozone and land air temperature.
Updated below with comments from Stephen Wilde
Monday, May 7th 2012, 12:44 PM EDT
An abrupt cooling in Europe together with an increase in humidity and particularly in windiness coincided with a sustained reduction in solar activity 2800 years ago. Scientists from the German Research Centre for Geosciences GFZ in collaboration with Swedish and Dutch colleagues provide evidence for a direct solar-climate linkage on centennial timescales. Using the most modern methodological approach, they analysed sediments from Lake Meerfelder Maar, a maar lake in the Eifel/Germany, to determine annual variations in climate proxies and solar activity.
The study published online this week in Nature Geosience (06/05/2012) reports the climatic change that occurred at the beginning of the pre-Roman Iron Age and demonstrates that especially the so-called Grand Minima of solar activity can affect climate conditions in western Europe through changes in regional atmospheric circulation pattern. Around 2800 years ago, one of these Grand Solar Minima, the Homeric Minimum, caused a distinct climatic change in less than a decade in Western Europe.
The exceptional seasonally laminated sediments from the studied maar lake allow a precise dating even of short-term climate changes. The results show for a 200 year long period strongly increased springtime winds during a period of cool and wet climate in Europe. In combination with model studies they suggest a mechanism that can explain the relation between a weak sun and climate change. "The change and strengthening of the tropospheric wind systems likely is related to stratospheric processes which in turn are affected by the ultraviolet radiation" explains Achim Brauer (GFZ), the initiator of the study. "This complex chain of processes thus acts as a positive feedback mechanism that could explain why assumingly too small variations in solar activity have caused regional climate changes."
Updated below with MUST READ comments from Stephen Wilde & Piers Corbyn
Thursday, April 26th 2012, 12:39 PM EDT
All the highest concentrations are downwind of warm water.
The Mediterranean gets very warm in summer so you can see the plume across the Middle East.
Australia gets CO2 from the ocean between it and South Africa.
South America gets CO2 from the Pacific upwind.
Western USA from the Pacific, upwind.
Southern Asia gets CO2 from the Indian Ocean, upwind.
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